Test the deductive validity of the following arguments: If you find that the arguments are deductively valid, then discuss their corresponding valid pattern. If you find them to be deductively invalid, then discuss why they are deductively invalid. Supply a missing premise if and when you think that this is right (not in the moral sense) thing to do.
I. All whales are mammals.
All mammals have lungs.
Therefore, all whales have lungs.
II. If I owned all the gold in Fort Knox, then I would be wealthy.
I do own all the gold in Fort Knox.
Therefore, I am wealthy.
III. If I owned all the gold in Fort Knox, then I would be wealthy.
I am wealthy.
Therefore, I own all the gold in Fort Knox.
IV. I think. Therefore, I am.