Please answer the following questions. Limit your answers up to 10 lines each, minimum of 5 lines per question. 5 points each.
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1. Based on our discussion for unit 1, explain the period called pre-philosophy or before philosophy. Why does this period do not promote the use of reason or human curiousity? Explain then the philosophical era which started only during the 6th century with the pre-socratics? How do you characterize this period compared to the pre-philosophy period?
2. Explain the following definitions of philosophy: from the etymological definition to the working definition of Garry Kessler, mentioning the brief survey of what wisdom is among Presocratics, sophists and socrates? Explain what Kessler’s definition meant by “rational attempt” to understand “fundamental questions”?
3. Defined and explain what is meant by Rationality according to William James, ellaborating some principles to resolve contradictions, errors and misunderstanding? Compare then foundationalism vs constructivism using demonstrative examples. Cite an instance that foundationalism can be more reliable source of truth than constructivists views.
4. Describe at least 3 important values of philosophy today described by Russell. Why is philosophy important today which is affected by materialism assuming human being as only body needing material things, affected by individualism thinking that man is private in isolation, and affected by dogmatic mentality that philosophy has answers to our questions. Enumerate some values of philosophy that corrects the issues mentioned above.
5. Explain the meaning of doing philosophy, aporia, avoiding skepticism and avoiding dogmatism in studying philosophy today. What attitude/s you need to take in order to progress in the process of thinking?
6. Describe who is Socrates in the context of Platoâ€™s Apology. What are two roles of philosophers in Socrates? Explain eachâ€”the GADFLY SENT BY GOD TO STATE and AS MIDWIFE OF TRUTH in society.
7. What is the APOLOGY of Plato all about? What are the accusations against Socrates in the Apology? How did Socrates answer them?