Assignment: Presentation of Epidemiology

Assignment: Presentation of Epidemiology

Assignment: Presentation of Epidemiology

Assignment: Presentation of Epidemiology

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Week 7 discussion Presentation of Epidemiological Problem Abstract This week you will share your findings from your problem paper. You will write up an abstract summarizing your findings. Your abstract should consist of 100 to 500 words. Keep in mind that an abstract should summarize your research, including its key themes and problems and providing your major conclusion

Epidemiology is the “study of distribution and determinants of health-related states among specified populations and the application of that study to the control of health problems.” — A Dictionary of Epidemiology

These materials provide an overview of epidemiology investigations, methods, and data collection.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorder in the United States, and leads to substantial morbidity, though associated mortality is rare. The prevalence of GERD symptoms appeared to increase until 1999. Risk factors for complications of GERD include advanced age, male sex, white race, abdominal obesity, and tobacco use. Most patients with GERD present with heartburn and effortless regurgitation. Coexistent dysphagia is considered an alarm symptom, prompting evaluation. There is substantial overlap between symptoms of GERD and those of eosinophilic esophagitis, functional dyspepsia, and gastroparesis, posing a challenge for patient management.Major areas of epidemiological study include disease causation, transmission, outbreak investigation, disease surveillance, environmental epidemiology, forensicepidemiology, occupational epidemiology, screening, biomonitoring, and comparisons of treatment effects such as in clinical trials.

Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where), patterns and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.

It is a cornerstone of public health, and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare. Epidemiologists help with study design, collection, and statistical analysis of data, amend interpretation and dissemination of results (including peer review and occasional systematic review). Epidemiology has helped develop methodology used in clinical research, public health studies, and, to a lesser extent, basic research in the biological sciences.[1]

Major areas of epidemiological study include disease causation, transmission, outbreak investigation, disease surveillance, environmental epidemiology, forensic epidemiology, occupational epidemiology, screening, biomonitoring, and comparisons of treatment effects such as in clinical trials. Epidemiologists rely on other scientific disciplines like biology to better understand disease processes, statistics to make efficient use of the data and draw appropriate conclusions, social sciences to better understand proximate and distal causes, and engineering for exposure assessment.

Epidemiology, literally meaning “the study of what is upon the people”, is derived from Greek epi, meaning ‘upon, among’, demos, meaning ‘people, district’, and logos, meaning ‘study, word, discourse’, suggesting that it applies only to human populations. However, the term is widely used in studies of zoological populations (veterinary epidemiology), although the term “epizoology” is available, and it has also been applied to studies of plant populations (botanical or plant disease epidemiology).[2]

The distinction between “epidemic” and “endemic” was first drawn by Hippocrates,[3] to distinguish between diseases that are “visited upon” a population (epidemic) from those that “reside within” a population (endemic).[4] The term “epidemiology” appears to have first been used to describe the study of epidemics in 1802 by the Spanish physician Villalba in Epidemiología Española.[4] Epidemiologists also study the interaction of diseases in a population, a condition known as a syndemic.

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