Assignment: diagnosis of stomach cancer

Assignment: diagnosis of stomach cancer

Assignment: diagnosis of stomach cancer

Question 22.                     

A 77-year-old male patient with a diagnosis of stomach cancer has been found to have metastases in his liver. The patient and his family are surprised at this turn of events, stating that they don’t see how he could have developed cancer in his liver. Which of the following facts would underlie the reply that the care team provides?

The parenchymal tissue of the liver is particularly susceptible to secondary malignancies.

The portal circulatory system brings venous blood from the gastrointestinal tract into the liver.

Hepatic stromal tissue shares characteristics with cancerous cells, including lack of anchorage dependence.

The proximity of the liver to the stomach allows for direct spread of cancerous cells due to a lack of contact inhibition.

 

Question 23.                     

A woman is surprised to read on the Internet that certain infections can cause cancer and has sought clarification from her nurse practitioner during an office visit. How can the NP best respond to the woman’s query?

“Though it’s not particularly common, it’s true that certain bacteria and viruses can lead to cancer.”

“Most cancers that cannot be attributed to family history or lifestyle are in fact associated with viruses.”

“There are many viruses, but only a very few of them have been shown to cause cancer in humans.”

“This is true; for example, HIV has been shown to cause cancer in some patients.”

 

Question 24.                     

The family of a 68-year-old man who is in the end stages of small cell lung cancer is distraught at his visible body wasting that has worsened in recent weeks. Which of the following phenomena best accounts for the patient’s anorexia and cachexia?

Inadequate cellular metabolism of glucose results from tumor factors

High fat losses coupled with preservation of muscle mass exaggerate the appearance of wasting

Products of the tumor itself as well as a hypermetabolic state cause cachexia

Inadequate food intake due to symptoms and treatment results in loss of both muscle and fat

 

Question 25.                     

The nurse practitioner working in occupational health has been asked to speak to a group of factory workers about the importance of wearing gloves when working with strong chemicals such as turpentine and paint thinner. Which of the following characteristics of cell membranes underlies the nurse’s teaching?

Cell membranes are impermeable to all but lipid-soluble substances.

Cell membranes have lipids that have a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail.

Cell membranes contain receptors for hormones and biologically active substances.

Transmembrane proteins can pass through the cell membrane into the intracellular environment.

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