Assignment: Alcohol and Breast Cancer

Assignment: Alcohol and Breast Cancer

Assignment: Alcohol and Breast Cancer

Chen, C., Han, C., Kan, C., Chen, S., & Hung, P. W. (2012). Effect of surgical site infections with waterless and traditional hand scrubbing protocols on bacterial growth. American Journal of Infection Control, 40(4), e15. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2011.09.008

Liu, Y., Nguyen, N., & Colditz, G. A. (2015). Links between alcohol consumption and breast cancer: A look at the evidence. Women’s Health (London, England), 11(1), 65­77. doi:10.2217/whe.14.62

discussion question

Review the following research questions.

  1. Is the use of soap and water or alcohol-based rubs more effective in preventing nosocomial infections?
  2. How effective are anti-depressive medications on anxiety and depression?
  3. For patients of 70 years and older, how effective is the use of the influenza vaccine at preventing flu as compared to patients who have not received the vaccine?
  4. What is the relationship between alcohol and breast cancer?
  5. What is the difference between self-efficacy scores in older adults who exercise and the scores of those who do not?
  6. What is the difference in attitudes of male and female college students toward condoms?

Next, select 3 of the above questions and address the following:

  • Identify an appropriate research design.
  • Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the design.
  • Provide a rationale for the design you selectedUse of Soap and Water Versus Alcohol-Based Rubs to Prevent Nosocomial Infections

    The study chosen for this topic researched the effects of waterless hand rubs versus the traditional hand scrubbing method to prevent infections in surgical rooms.  One hundred operating room staff members from different medical centers were divided into two groups of fifty participants (Chen, Han, Kan, Chen & Hung, 2012).  One group used waterless hand rubs and the other group of workers used traditional hand washing techniques as part of the scrubbing process for surgeries.  The hands of the participants were scrubbed and a bacterial culture was done on the two groups of participants (Chen et al., 2012).  After a forty-eight hour period of bacterial growth of both samples, the results demonstrated bacteria growth was equal among the two groups (Chen et al., 2012).  There were no statistical significance found.  The study concluded that alcohol-based rubs and water provide the same level of protection among operating room staff (Chen et al., 2012).

    Strengths and Weaknesses

    One of the strengths of the study was the method of conducting the study was the same among the two participant groups (Chen et al., 2012).  The time the participants took in applying the alcohol-based rub and washing hands were the same.  The weakness of the study was the participant sample was rather small (Chen et al., 2012).  A larger study conducted at different facilities provides better evidence of the findings.  Also, a study with a larger sample population may have also resulted in different findings (Chen et al., 2012).

    Rationale for the Design

    The study selected is a quantitative research that attempted to estimate the required scrubbing times using alcohol-based scrubs and traditional handwashing technique for operating room staff (Chen et al., 2012).  Also the study focused on comparing the use of alcohol-based hand rubs versus the traditional handwashing techniques in prevention of nosocomial infections in the operating room (Chen et al., 2012).

    Relationship Between Alcohol and Breast Cancer

    The article reviewed focused on possible pathways of alcohol into the breast tissue and possible consequences.  The study also reviewed the women’s age in relations to drinking habits, in an attempt to identify a possible connection between early alcohol consumption among women and breast cancer (Liu, Nguyen, & Colditz, 2015).  The study concluded that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with higher risk of breast cancer (Liu, Nguyen, & Colditz, 2015).

    Strengths and Weaknesses

    A strength of the study is there was significant evidence to suggest that the risk of cancer increases by thirty-four percent for those women who had an alcohol intake greater than fifteen drinks per day (Liu, Nguyen, & Colditz, 2015).  A weakness identified in the study was that other lifestyle components that may increase the risk of breast cancer were not taken into consideration when conducting the study (Liu, Nguyen, & Colditz, 2015).

    Rationale for the Design

    This research was focused on the possible influence of timing and patterns of alcohol consumption and the possible mechanisms underlying alcohol and breast cancer association.  The possible pathways of alcohol into the breast tissue were studied (Liu, Nguyen, & Colditz, 2015).  The women’s age in relation to drinking habits for possible connection between early alcohol consumption in women and breast cancer were also studied (Liu, Nguyen, & Colditz, 2015).

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