1. In paragraph 4, Aristotle talks about the different elements in the state, referring to nine classes of people: husbandmen, traders, the military, lawyers, and others. Do these different groups still constitute the modern state in the way in which Aristotle describes them? Why does he consider these different elements when talking about government? Do you feel he is justified in doing so? What are the most important different “elements” in the state as you understand them?
2. Rousseau makes an important distinction between natural liberty and civil liberty. People in a state of nature enjoy natural liberty, and when they bind themselves into a body politic, they enjoy civil liberty. What are the differences? Define each kind of liberty as carefully as you can, and take a stand on whether you feel civil liberty or natural liberty is superior. How is the conflict between the two forms of liberty felt today?
3. Which of the authors in Part Three would have the most problem with Gazzaniga‘s views that there might be a universal ethics based on evolutionary developments in the human brain? Consider closely the work of Iris Murdoch in “Morality and Religion” (p. 359) and Kwame Anthony Appiah in “The Case against Character” (p. 397). Which of these authors would be most opposed to Gazzaniga and which would be most in agreement?